Segmented LED Explained
The segmented led is like having 4 leds on top and 4 on bottom.
How does the reed switch work
The reed switch has two separate wires that are attracted or repelled by a magnetic field, so when you place a magnet by them, they connect and close the circuit.
What is the resistor's role in a circuit?
To slow down the flow of electricity. If we didn't have resistors, the LED will blow up. But if we put too much resistors, the LED's light will be dimmer.
Capacitors In A Circuit - Small Capacitor
Since the small capacitor is smaller it stores less electricity so it fades faster.
How does the IR LED and phototransistor circuit work?
Circuit is completed when IR LED is facing the phototransistor because the phototransistor can sense IR light. Then the circuit is closed and the visible light LED lights up.
Multiple resistors like multiple dams
Each resistor is like a dam by taking away Electrical current.
EEME Dad's comments: Each dam actually drops the voltage.