How electricity creates a magnet
It creates a magnetic field that goes in circles around the wire and when you combine them it makes them bigger
How does the circuit work?
I am going to tell you how the circuit works. The red wire is positive and the black wire is negative. I connected my red wire on the top bus and the black wire on the bottom bus. The red wire is connected to the resister on one side because the red wire and the resister are both in the top bus. The top bus is connected horizontally so the red wire is connected to the register. On the other side of the resister it is connected to the positive side of the LED (the positive side is the longer one and the shorter one is negative) because we are in the middle which is the internal strip. The internal strip is connected vertically so they are connected. The negative side of the LED is connected to the yellow wire because we are still in the internal strip and remember the internal strip connects vertically. The other side of the yellow wire is connected to to the black wire because we are in the bottom bus and just like the top bus the bottom bus connects horizontally. And as you see everything is connected to something. So that is how the circuit works.
About the NPN Circuit Pt 2
The middle two resistors are attached to the second long wire so when you put them together, the second is attached to the first and is attached to the red battery wire. If you go to the other path, it's connected to the short blue wire.
Introducing The Potentiometer
The potentiometer is technically a resister exept a regular resister is fixed and you can not change the resistance . But the potentiometer has a knob for changing the resistance
Capacitor With Transistor - How It Works
When the button is pressed the circuit closes, and the LED turns on. when you let go however, the capacitor is still holding some charge, and that charge leaks out and lights up the LED for a few more seconds.
Segmented LED Explained
each side of the of the part has a middle wire the middle wire is attached to all of the leds