How does the LED work?
The long end of the LED is connected to the red wire, (or positive wire) through the resistor and the short end of the LED is connected to the black wire, (or negative wire) through the yellow/white wire.
What is the bus part of the breadboard?
The top bus and the bottom bus of the breadboard are holes with connected wires underneath. The wires run horizontal. The wires are not connected vertical.
Why your electro-magnet gets warm
amount of current flowing and resistance
Capacitors In A Circuit - Small Capacitor
The smaller capacitor stores less charge so it depletes faster
Sharing Current Explained
Three leds share the same connection to the negative wire. The resistor which acts like a dam is connected to the shared positive middle pin for all the led segments.
! I'M DONE I KNOW THIS STUFF !
How does the circuit work?
Connect the positive part of the battery to the negative part using wires and transistors to connect the current of electricity.
EEME Dad's comments: For this specific circuit, not transistor - we are using a resistor.