Humans operate in the analog worldthe voltage and current affects how loud the sound is. there is an infinite number of volumes that it can produce. we, as humans, can also produce an infinite number of volumes of sounds. this makes us analog "machines."
How the motor gearbox worksThere are three gears: big gear small gear and motor gear the electric motor is slowed down by the two gears, one small one large
How the always-on LED circuit worksOnce the IC has gotten its positive electric current and negative current, the pin attached to the positive current keeps electricity flowing even when not in a closed circuit.
How the diode worksThe diode only works in one direction. When the stripe on the diode is facing toward the negative side, current can pass through.
How an Op Amp worksAn OP AMP works when it takes the amount of voltage applied to the positive prong and subtracts it from the amount of voltage applied to the negative prong. So, if there was 0.03 volts applied to the positive prong and 0.01 volts applied to the negative prong, then 0.03-0.01=0.02volts. Then the OP Amp IC amplifies the difference depending on what type of OP AMP it is and if it is being powered by 9 volt battery, it amplifies the difference to 9 volts. In Electrical engineering talk, the (+) plus prong is called the non-inverting prong. The (-) negative prong is called the inverted prong.
How does the bi-color LED circuit workThe short wire connects the long prong of the bi-color LED to the negative BUS. the long wires connect the short prongs of the bi-color LED to the positive BUS.